Anhui Province is located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huaihe River.It borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny section in the north.
Origin of the province name:
Anhui Province was founded in 1667 and has a proud history of over 300 years. Early in the Qing Dynasty a huge province, named Jiangnan Province, was founded. It included what are now Anhui Province, Jiangsu Province and Shanghai City.During the Qing Dynasty, in the sixth year of the reign of Emperor Kangxi (A.D.1667), Jiangnan Province was divided into two provinces: Anhui and Jiangsu. The name “Anhui” comes from the first Chinese characters of two prefectures, Anqing and Huizhou. In the year when Anhui was established, Anqing was the political center of the province and Huizhou was the economic center.
The province abbreviation is “Wan”, because there were historically a State of Wan, a Mount Wan, and a Wan River in the province
Mount Wan, now the Tianzhu Mountain
Anhui Province is about 570 km from south to north and 450 km from east to west. It covers an area of 139.6 thousand square kilometers, about 1.45 percent of the total area of the country.
There are various landforms in Anhui. The Yangtze River and Huaihe River flow through the province and divide the whole province into three main natural area to the Huaihe River, the area between the Huaihe River and the Yangtze River and the south area to the Yangtze River. Some major mountains, such as Dabie Mountain, Yellow Mountain, Jiuhua Mountain and Tianzhu Mountain lie in Anhui, and the highest peak of Yellow Mountain---Lotus Peak is 1,860 meters above sea level. Among many rivers and lakes in Anhui, Chaohu Lake is one of the five great freshwater lakes in China, with an area of 800 square kilometers.
Bridge over the Yangtze River in Tongling City
Bridge over the Huaihe River in Bengbu City
Anhui is one of the most important cradles of China's pre-historical civilization. It has been discovered that even 2.5 million years ago, human beings already inhabited the site in the Inverted V Cave(the shape of the Chinese character of “man”) in Fanchang County.The Hexian County's Sinanthropus Site of the Paleolithic Age (300,000 or 400,000 years ago) was excavated in the Dragon Pool Cave of Hexian County. These excavations have demonstrated that many generationsof people have lived in this area since remote antiquity. During the Neolithic Age (between 4,000 and 10,000 years ago), Anhui belonged to the cultural domains of Yangshao, Longshan, Qingnianand Veined Chinaware.
The inverted V cave in Fangchang County
The Xuejiagang Site, excavated in Qianshan County, has a long history of about 5,000 to 6,000 years. This ancient cultural site, revealing mostly Neolithic relics, is of great importance in the research of the primitive culture in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.
Yu, the historical reputed founder of the Xia Dynasty, had a close relation with Anhui. According to the historical records, Yu met with local lords at Tushan and all the lords paid tributes to him.Tushan is the ancient Dangtu County in today’s Horsehead Town,southeast of Huaiyuan County in Anhui.
Bozhou was once the capital of the Chengtang State in the Shang Dynasty (between 1,600 to 1,100 B.C), while the ancient Shouchun (today’s Shouxian County)was the capital of the late Chu State in the Warring States Period(475-221 B.C). The ancient copper tripod caldron excavated from the tombs of the Chu Dynasty is just little lighter than Simuwu Rectangle Ding, a bronze cooking vessel with two loop handles and four legs, of the Shang Dynasty. In the Qin Dynasty, according to the administrative division at that time, the area north to the Huai River belonged to Tang Prefecture and Sishui Prefecture, the area between the Huaihe River and the Yangtze River belonged to Jiujiang Prefecture, and the area south to the Yangtze River belonged to Zhang Prefecture.During the East Han and West Han dynasties, Anhui belonged to Yang, Yu, and Xu prefectures. In the period of the Three Kingdoms(A.D. 222-280), Anhui was dominated by the State of Wu and the State of Wei, and was a battle field innumerable times. In the period of the Jin Dynasty, Southern and Northern dynasties and the Sui Dynasty, Anhui belonged respectively to Yang, Xu and Yu prefectures.In the Song Dynasty, Hui merchants flourished quickly,economy and culture of Hui Prefecture created great influence on the whole nation.
Ancient Shouchun in Shou County
In the Yuan Dynasty,Anhui was governed by Henan Province, Jiang and Zhe administrative provinces. In the Ming Dynasty, Anhui was under the direct administration of the Capital of Nanjing, and the province was subdividedinto seven prefectures and four counties: Anqing, Huizhou,Ningguo, Chizhou, Taiping, Luzhou and Fengyang prefectures, and Chu, He, Xu and Guangde counties. In the Qing Dynasty, Anhui was set up as a province with eight prefectures and five counties: Huizhou,Ningguo, Chizhou Taiping Anqing, Luyang, Fengyang, Yingzhou prefectures, and Guangde, Chu, He, Lu’an counties. At the beginning of the Republic of China (1912-1949), Anhui was divided intoWuhu, Anqing, and Huaisi prefectures. After the founding of thePeople’s Republic of China, Anhui was divided into the two prefectures of Northern Anhui and Southern Anhui, with Hefei as the capital of Northern Anhui and Wuhu the capital of Southern Anhui. In 1952, North Anhui and Southern Anhui were merged to form Anhui Province, and Hefei was selected as the provincial capital city.
Anhui is a traditional agricultural province. Agriculture in Anhui varies according to the climate zones that the province crosses. North of the Huai He river wheat and sweet potatos are grown, while south of the Huai He river, it is rice and wheat instead.
Natural resources of Anhui include iron in Ma'anshan, coal in Huainan, and copper in Tongling
There are industries related to these natural resources (e.g. steel industry at Ma'anshan). One of the famous Anhui-based corporations is the automobile company Chery, which is based in Wuhu.
Anhui's nominal GDP for 2009 was approximately 1.005 trillion yuan (US$147 billion), up 12.9% from 2008 and a per capita of 16,391 yuan (US$2,400). It is considered a mid-size economy in terms of economic output.
The Chinese (Yangtze) alligator
The good environment, particularly the mild weather, plentiful precipitation and loamy soil, make Anhui an ideal habitat for many sorts of animals and plants. The province is confirmed having 4245 higher forms of plant life, accounting for 14.2 per cent of that of the whole country, among which 6 are categorized as the nation’s first class protected plants; 25 are categorized as the nation’s second-class protected plants; 44 are categorized as the province’s key protected plants. Inside the province 742 kinds of amniotes have been found that are classified into 121 sections under 44 items, accounting for 14.1 percent of all Chinese amniotes. Among which, 21 are categorized as the nation’s first-class protected wild animals; 70 are categorized as the nation’s second-class protected animals; 99 are categorized as the province’s key protected animals. The Chinese (Yangtze) alligator and Chinese river dolphin (white-fin dolphin) are rare animals in the world that live in the Yangtze River in the middle part of Anhui.
At present, about thirty per cent of Anhui is covered in forest,with a planned afforested area of 61.85 million mu (4.123 million hectares); the afforested area reaches 54.01 million mu (3.6 million hectares), with a tree coverage of 30.3 percent. The total forest tree stock volume is 165 million cubic meters. At present, there are 22 National Ecological Demonstration Areas in the province. The province has designated and constructed 31 national and provincial natural protection areas. The province has 27 national forest parks. Anhui is rich in water resources. The province has a gross aquatic capacity of 68 billion cubic meters. Anhui has many ecological advantages,and is making every effort to develop them. With continued effort over the next 20 years, Anhui expects to be counted as one of the provinces with the best ecological environment.
Anhui produces a wide range of agricultural products. Its output of grain, cotton and oil ranks Anhui ahead of other provinces in the nation. Anhui is one of the most important bases for producing pollution-free staple agricultural products and green, organic food stuff in China. It has a big potential for further agricultural industrialization. On average, the province can provide 25 million tons of grain, 2.5 million tons of edible oils, and 300,000 tons of cotton, ranking Anhui respectively the sixth for these products among all the provinces in China. Anhui takes the lead in China for developing special agricultural products and high profit agricultural products,with the output of tea, tobacco, and Chinese traditional medicine ranking the province first in the nation.
Anhui is rich in mineral resources. Its deposits of metal minerals and metalloid minerals are both diverse and abundant. The variety and abundance of the minerals rank Anhui ahead of other provinces in the country. About 104 different kinds of useful minerals have been discovered. To date, geologists have verified reserves of 69 different minerals. Of which, 38 minerals rank among the top ten,and 18 minerals rank among the top five in the nation. Coal, iron ore, copper ore, sulfur and alunite are especially useful for industrial purposes and can be found in large supply in Anhui.Based on its mineral advantages, Anhui has become an important base for energy,raw material, manufacturing and processing in the nation.
Anhui is located in the transitional area between temperate zone and subtropical zone, so the climate here is warm and moist, and the four seasons are distinct. The north of the Huaihe River possesses a half-moist monsoon climate of warm temperate zone while the south of the Huaihe River possesses a subtropical moist monsoon climate. The annual average temperature of the province is 14℃-17℃, the average sunshine lasts 1800-2500 hours, the average frost-free period reaches 200-250 days and the average rainfall remains 800-1800mm per year.
Provincial flower- azaleas
Provincial Tree- guest-greeting pine
Anhui is divided into seventeen prefecture-level divisions, all of them prefecture-level cities:Hefei, Huaibei, Suzhou, Bozhou, Bengbu, Fuyang, Huannan, Chuzhou, Liu’an, Ma’anshan, Chaohu, Wuhu, Xuancheng, Tongling, Chizhou, Anqing and Huangshan.The seventeen prefecture-level divisions of Anhui are subdivided into 105 county-level divisions (44 districts, five county-level cities, and 56 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1845 township-level divisions (972 towns, 634 townships, nine ethnic townships, and 230 subdistricts).The Provincial Capital City is Hefei.
Thought Anui is located in the inner land, the later strides in transportation infrastructure construction, compared with other provinces in the east China, it developed quite fast so that the whole province has roughly formed an advanced cubic transportation network of water, land and sea, in which the most developed is the railway transportation with rail mileage open to traffic reaching over 2,500 kms that is the longest in east China.
[Aviation]: The province's scheduled route network serves 50 domestic destinations. Scheduled flight service operates from Hefei and Huangshan to Hong Kong and Macau. In addition, chartered flights from Anhui flying to Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Korea are regularly operated. There are also airports in other cities, including Anqing, Wuhu, Bengbu and Fuyang, opening provincial and domestic airlines.
[Railroads]: Both Beijing-Shanghai railroad and Beijing-Kowloon railroad run through Anhui, ranking the province's railroad coverage the highest in Eastern China. After the completion of Hefei-Nanjing railroad, Hefei-Wuhan railroad and Tongling-Jiujiang railroad, Anhui will become an important province with regard to railroad network.
[Highways]: Hefei-Nanjing Expressway, Hefei-Jieshou Expressway, Hefei-Wuhu Expressway, Hefei-Xuzhou Expressway, Huangshan-Hangzhou Expressway, Lujiang-Tongling Expressway, Wuhu-Ma'anshan Expressway, and Bengbu-Mingguang Expressway have framed an all-round accessed highway network in the province. Highway network system provides a better access to the eastern part of China.
[Waterways]: Anhui has fashioned a complete external transportation network with water, air and land entry and exit ports. There are entirely 9 ports of various types. Fuyang and Bengbu are land ports that open to foreign freight. Waterway ports such as Wuhu, Tongling, Anqing, Ma'anshan and Chizhou are all open to foreign freight ships. The Wuhu port has a capacity of berthing 10,000-ton freight ships. The others are all equipped with a 5,000-ton deep water wharf. The access to the oceangoing route links Anhui with many other countries and regions in the world, which are able to load and download, import and export cargoes. With the three river systems, namely, the Yangtze River, the Huai River and the Xin'an River, the mileage of the inland navigable waterways extends more than 6,000 kilometers.