Some new achievements have been accomplished in the sectors of science and technology. At the end of 2005, Anhui¡¯s workforce, skilled in all categories of specific fields, numbered 1.152 million. It had 932 scientific and technological research and development institutions. Of which, one laboratory is of national significance, another laboratory is considered as the one that performs national important research, 24 laboratories are of provincial significance and 13 laboratories are of ministerial significance. The total amount of expenditure for scientific and technological undertaking from all scientific and technological research institutions, institutes of higher learning, and research institutes affiliated to large and medium size enterprises throughout the province reached 12.13 billion Yuan last year, increased by 18 per cent over the previous year. Research performed by the province¡¯s scientists has led to significant new scientific, technological and commercial achievements. The province acquired 546 major scientific and technological achievements of provincial and ministerial significance last year. All together, 5,113 technological contracts of all types were signed, with the total value of 1.43 billion Yuan.
The province has accelerated the development of its education sector. Last year, 21,505 graduate students attended 19 graduate schools affiliated to different universities. University student population continued to grow. At the end of 2005, there were 81 universities and colleges, with the total number of registered full-time university and junior college students reaching 589,000. About 633,000 registered students attended secondary vocational schools (excluding the secondary trade and technical schools) throughout the province. The student populations of the 760 senior high schools, 3.188 junior high schools and 20,142 primary schools were respectively 1.17 million, 3.44 million and 5.841 million last year. The enrollment rate for children entering junior high schools was as high as 97.78 per cent. The enrollment rate for children of school age was 99.54 per cent.
Hefei - China¡¯s First Science & Technology Innovative Model City
Hefei, capital of Anhui Province, is dedicating itself to science. It boasts the largest group of scientific and technological talent in Central China. The city is actively seeking new technological industries and striving for efficient use of energy and raw materials, low pollution and high added value yields. Authorized by the central government, the construction of the city into a science and technology innovative model city is co-launched and will be guided by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the provincial government.
The first group of 60 projects were selected and launched in Hefei National Science & Technology Innovative Model City, with an estimated investment of 14 billion Yuan (around US$1.7 billion). The projects cover a variety of fields including scientific research, industrialization, education, commerce and infrastructure construction. With 10 to 15 years efforts, Hefei will strive to build itself into a science city that delivers national strategic high technologic research and knowledge innovation; is an innovative model for engagement between scientific research and industry and an innovative place, the nation¡¯s most unusual science park; secure real growth from knowledge economy and disruptive technology that can form the basis of new industries. It will be a pilot science park that implements the principle of scientific outlook in an overall way. Here businesses gain leading edge technology; the city gains exploitation and entrepreneurial culture; and the central part of China gains a real model of technology-based economic growth.
USTC, a University of National Recognition and Prestige
The University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) is a university affiliated to the Chinese Academy of Sciences; it is one of the national key universities, which attaches importance on frontline science and new & high technology, and technological management and humanities learning and research. It was founded in Beijing in September 1958, and was transferred to Hefei in 1970, with Mr. Guo Moruo being the first president of the university. It is one of the nation¡¯s 9 universities that are heavily sponsored by the nation to be built into world first-class research universities.
At present, the university has 8 schools of different learning, 24 departments, a Youngster Class (educational reform experimental class), a postgraduate department, a software school, an adult continuing education institute. It co-founded the USTC Higher Research Institute with Hefei Institute of Physical Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and set up postgraduate department Suzhou Branch and Shanghai Branch in Suzhou City and Shanghai City. The university also possesses three national basic science and research and teacher-cultivation bases, namely, mathematics, physics and mechanics, one national center for cultivating talents for life science and technology, 19 key studies of national level; it has national key laboratories such as Hefei National Synchronous Radiation Laboratory with Cylindrical Particle Accelerator, Hefei National Fire Disaster Laboratory, and has 16 science and technology organizations of national and provincial level. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale which is currently under construction.
The university has built up a complete educational system for granting bachelor¡¯s, master¡¯s and doctor¡¯s degrees. It offers 37 undergraduate programs, 109 programs are authorized to grant master¡¯s degree, 17 doctoral degree programs at the first level of learning, 93 doctoral degree programs at the second level of learning, and it offers profession-related masters degree programs in the field of business administration (MBA), public administration (MPA) and engineering. It also has 17 stations for postdoctoral research, and 48 branches of learning for postdoctoral studies. The university has built up a complete educational system of cultivating bachelors, masters, and doctors. At present, the university has 25 academicians granted by Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering, two academician granted by The Third World Academy of Sciences, 460 professors and 580 associate professors. In addition, some scientists of world prestige have been bestowed upon the title of honorary professor, honorary doctor or guest professor by the university for his/her dedicated service and professional distinction in those disciplines in which he/she has served with excellence, including Professor Chen Ning Yang, Professor Tsung-Dao Lee, and Professor Samuel Chao Chung Ting.
Vowing to stay at the leading edge of the world¡¯s scientific and technological developments, USTC is committed to the nation¡¯s significant science researches, increasing competitiveness and creating knowledge, inventing and discovering that aim to turn the commitment into actual practice and technological development.
Anhui University is the province¡¯s leading comprehensive university and one of universities that have the nation¡¯s priority to be developed in the 21st Century. In 1928, Anhui University was set up in Anqing, the capital city of Anhui at that time; in 1958, approved by the State Council, the university was rebuilt in Hefei. On September 16, 1958, Chairman Mao Zedong inspected Anhui and inscribed the university name.
In recent years, Anhui University has implemented the construction projects under the Tenth Five-year Plan and witnessed prominent progresses both in all of its educational undertakings and in accomplishing construction projects of ¡°211 Project¡±. The university has 14 schools, 44 departments, a vocational technological institute, Jianghuai College, a continuing educational college and an international educational school, offering 65 bachelor degree programs and 1 Second Baccalaureate Degree program, (for admission to a second undergraduate degree program the student must hold a first undergraduate degree). The university also provides positions for postdoctoral fellows pertaining to the postdoctoral experience, to enhance that experience as much as possible. The university is able to grant doctoral degrees in 7 disciplines and master¡¯s degrees in 65 disciplines. In addition, it offers master¡¯s degrees in 4 areas of professional studies and 8 part-time programs for teaching staff of higher education institutions. Respectively two and 12 of the programs conducted in the university are of national recognition and provincial significance. Two disciplines, Computer Application Tecnology, and Chinese Language & Philology, are recognized as the discipline of national importance. Additionally, 12 are of provincial significance. The research conducted in Huizhou Studies Center and Intelligent Computing & Signal Processing Laboratory is always rated as the national level. It is one of the 22 national Chinese Culture education centers and one of the 84 universities which can award governmental scholarship to overseas students. At present, there are about 700 professors and associate professors. The university has so far employed 4 part-time academicians. For the 70 years since it was founded, the university has trained for the nation and province more than 100,000 competent professionals and highly skilled personnel working in various fields.
Hefei Institute of Physical Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Lying at Dongpu inland at the foot of the beautiful Shushan Lake in the western part of Hefei city, Hefei Institute of Physical Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (HIPSCAS) is one of the most important science and education centers of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It was founded in 2001 by incorporating the former four research institutions of Chinese Academy of Sciences that were Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Institute of Institute of Plasma Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics and Hefei Institute of Intelligent Machines.
HIPSCAS employs a total of more than 1,000 scientists and technicians. It offers positions to post-doctoral fellows in three different fields and its 6 programs and 18 programs respectively lead to the granting of doctoral degrees and master¡¯s degrees. The number of registered postgraduate students is 1,200. The institute has set up more than 20 well-furnished laboratories, including 9 key laboratories of provincial and ministerial level. The institute holds China¡¯s first super-conducting machine HT-7 Tokamak and a Nuclear Fusion Research Center sponsored by the World Laboratory, and a Research Center of the Third World Academy of Science.
Since the establishment of HIPSCAS, its major research fields aim at the following eight directions: Plasma physics and Magnetic confinement fusion; Atmosphere optics; Nano-science & material physics; Environmental optics & monitoring; High magnet field science & technology; Ion-beam Bioengineering; Laser application technology; Cryogenic & super conduct magnet technology etc. Its major research program include some important projects relating to the national projects of ¡°973¡± and ¡°863¡±, National Natural Sciences Research Foundation, and projects authorized by CAS and Anhui Province. Its scientific achievements have won various prizes authorized by national or provincial government. Especially, the study result on HT-7 super-conducting Tokamak obtained by the Institute of Plasma Physics get significant success and won the first class prize of scientific progress of CAS. It becomes one of the two important devices to process high parameters steady state plasma experiment in the world. Study and Development on High-Quality Tunable Laser Crystal Ti-doped Sapphire won the second class prize of national scientific progress.
Hefei National Synchronous Radiation Labo ratory (NSRL)
Hefei National Synchronous Radiation Laboratory with Cylindrical Particle Accelerator is located in the west campus of the University of Science and Technology of China; it is the first nationallevel laboratory and up to now the only one of national-level that is built in a university in China.
Synchronous Radiation, as an excellent new kind of light source, can be used in many basic research fields and application research fields such as physics, chemistry, material science, life science, information science, mechanics, geoscience, medical science, medicine, agronomy, environmental protection, metrology, light carving, and super-subtle process. NSRL has built the first special synchronous radiation light source with vacuum ultraviolet radiation and soft X-ray as its main light sources, it is a national laboratory open public to users both at home and abroad. Now the registered users have reached more than 150.